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I have access to a cluster with a few pretty fast GPU's (Tesla S1070). Should I get into bitcoin mining?
The cluster is shared, but I have a preferred subscription, meaning I get some sort of preference in the queue. Would it be worth my time to hog the GPU nodes and mine bitcoins? Here's the wiki page for the GPU. I have light programming knowledge (mostly research based though). If anyone thinks it'd be worth setting up, I'd be willing to pay you to help me out.
I want to optimize your program on a ppc64el-supercomputer with lots of Tesla V100-SXM2 GPUs for free
I've been working on a program to automatically adjust hyperparameters in a given range. That is things like number of neurons, number of layers etc. For this, I want to do this on real programs with real data that is actually useful. I've tried things like DeepSpeech, but I have immense problems getting it to work on a ppc64el-environment with some compiled dependencies. This will then be made into a paper. So, I'd like to offer the following. If you have an application you'd like to be trained on a high performance computing cluster with hundreds of Tesla V100-SXM2 GPUS, for free!, than you can write me your suggestions here. The following requirements must be met though: - It has to be able to run on ppc64el Linux natively (i.e. you compiled it for it or it's only python and bash) - It has to be free software (and legal, of course) - No bitcoin mining or things like that - Has to be a real world application with lots of data that is either freely accessible or you can give me a download link for - The program needs to accept the parameters via a cli (i.e. "program.py --layers=10") - There has to be a loss function that can be minimized (e.g. the number of errors made, or quadratic loss or whatever, only thing that matters is one number and lower meaning better) - The result needs to be publically available, too. I have as much parallel computing time as we need and can automatically try as many combination as we want until we have a good result. RAM is not an issue, I have about 440GB RAM on a node, and more than 30 nodes with 6 Teslas each. I'd really be interested in good suggestions, from which I will chose one or maybe two. You'll also get fancy graphs of the GPU workload over time, and of the hyperparameter sets tried out. Anyone interested?
Author: Gamals Ahmed, CoinEx Business Ambassador https://preview.redd.it/5bqakdqgl3g51.jpg?width=865&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b709794863977eb6554e3919b9e00ca750e3e704 A decentralized storage network that transforms cloud storage into an account market. Miners obtain the integrity of the original protocol by providing data storage and / or retrieval. On the contrary, customers pay miners to store or distribute data and retrieve it. Filecoin announced, that there will be more delays before its main network is officially launched. Filecoin developers postponed the release date of their main network to late July to late August 2020. As mentioned in a recent announcement, the Filecoin team said that the initiative completed the first round of the internal protocol security audit. Platform developers claim that the results of the review showed that they need to make several changes to the protocol’s code base before performing the second stage of the software testing process. Created by Protocol Labs, Filecoin was developed using File System (IPFS), which is a peer-to-peer data storage network. Filecoin will allow users to trade storage space in an open and decentralized market. Filecoin developers implemented one of the largest cryptocurrency sales in 2017. They have privately obtained over $ 200 million from professional or accredited investors, including many institutional investors. The main network was slated to launch last month, but in February 2020, the Philly Queen development team delayed the release of the main network between July 15 and July 17, 2020. They claimed that the outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) in China was the main cause of the delay. The developers now say that they need more time to solve the problems found during a recent codecase audit. The Filecoin team noted the following: “We have drafted a number of protocol changes to ensure that building our major network launch is safe and economically sound.” The project developers will add them to two different implementations of Filecoin (Lotus and go-filecoin) in the coming weeks. Filecoin developers conducted a survey to allow platform community members to cast their votes on three different launch dates for Testnet Phase 2 and mainnet. The team reported that the community gave their votes. Based on the vote results, the Filecoin team announced a “conservative” estimate that the second phase of the network test should begin by May 11, 2020. The main Filecoin network may be launched sometime between July 20 and August 21, 2020. The updates to the project can be found on the Filecoin Road Map. Filecoin developers stated: “This option will make us get the most important protocol changes first, and then implement the rest as protocol updates during testnet.” Filecoin is back down from the final test stage. Another filecoin decentralized storage network provider launched its catalytic test network, the final stage of the storage network test that supports the blockchain. In a blog post on her website, Filecoin said she will postpone the last test round until August. The company also announced a calibration period from July 20 to August 3 to allow miners to test their mining settings and get an idea of how competition conditions affected their rewards. Filecoin had announced earlier last month that the catalytic testnet test would precede its flagship launch. The delay in the final test also means that the company has returned the main launch window between August 31 and September 21. Despite the lack of clear incentives for miners and multiple delays, Filecoin has succeeded in attracting huge interest, especially in China. Investors remained highly speculating on the network’s mining hardware and its premium price. Mining in Filecoin In most blockchain protocols, “miners” are network participants who do the work necessary to promote and maintain the blockchain. To provide these services, miners are compensated in the original cryptocurrency. Mining in Filecoin works completely differently — instead of contributing to computational power, miners contribute storage capacity to use for dealing with customers looking to store data. Filecoin will contain several types of miners: Storage miners responsible for storing files and data on the network. Miners retrieval, responsible for providing quick tubes for file recovery. Miners repair to be carried out. Storage miners are the heart of the network. They earn Filecoin by storing data for clients, and computerizing cipher directories to check storage over time. The probability of earning the reward reward and transaction fees is proportional to the amount of storage that the Miner contributes to the Filecoin network, not the hash power. Retriever miners are the veins of the network. They earn Filecoin by winning bids and mining fees for a specific file, which is determined by the market value of the said file size. Miners bandwidth and recovery / initial transaction response time will determine its ability to close recovery deals on the network. The maximum bandwidth of the recovery miners will determine the total amount of deals that it can enter into. In the current implementation, the focus is mostly on storage miners, who sell storage capacity for FIL.
The current system specifications recommended for running the miner are:
NVIDIA-manufactured GPU (to be expanded).
SSD drive designated as large buffer (512GB +).
Large amount of RAM for data replication account (128GB +)
Compared to the hardware requirements for running a validity checker, these standards are much higher — although they definitely deserve it. Since these will not increase in the presumed future, the money spent on Filecoin mining hardware will provide users with many years of reliable service, and they pay themselves many times. Think of investing as a small business for cloud storage. To launch a model on the current data hosting model, it will cost millions of dollars in infrastructure and logistics to get started. With Filecoin, you can do the same for a few thousand dollars. Proceed to mining Deals are the primary function of the Filecoin network, and it represents an agreement between a client and miners for a “storage” contract. Once the customer decides to have a miner to store based on the available capacity, duration and price required, he secures sufficient funds in a linked portfolio to cover the total cost of the deal. The deal is then published once the mine accepts the storage agreement. By default, all Filecoin miners are set to automatically accept any deal that meets their criteria, although this can be disabled for miners who prefer to organize their deals manually. After the deal is published, the customer prepares the data for storage and then transfers it to the miner. Upon receiving all the data, the miner fills in the data in a sector, closes it, and begins to provide proofs to the chain. Once the first confirmation is obtained, the customer can make sure the data is stored correctly, and the deal has officially started. Throughout the deal, the miner provides continuous proofs to the chain. Clients gradually pay with money they previously closed. If there is missing or late evidence, the miner is punished. More information about this can be found in the Runtime, Cut and Penalties section of this page. At Filecoin, miners earn two different types of rewards for their efforts: storage fees and reward prevention. Storage fees are the fees that customers pay regularly after reaching a deal, in exchange for storing data. This fee is automatically deposited into the withdrawal portfolio associated with miners while they continue to perform their duties over time, and is locked for a short period upon receipt. Block rewards are large sums given to miners calculated on a new block. Unlike storage fees, these rewards do not come from a linked customer; Instead, the new FIL “prints” the network as an inflationary and incentive measure for miners to develop the chain. All active miners on the network have a chance to get a block bonus, their chance to be directly proportional to the amount of storage space that is currently being contributed to the network. Duration of operation, cutting and penalties “Slashing” is a feature found in most blockchain protocols, and is used to punish miners who fail to provide reliable uptime or act maliciously against the network. In Filecoin, miners are susceptible to two different types of cut: storage error cut, unanimously reduce error. Storage Error Reduction is a term used to include a wider range of penalties, including error fees, sector penalties, and termination fees. Miners must pay these penalties if they fail to provide reliability of the sector or decide to leave the network voluntarily. An error fee is a penalty that a miner incurs for each non-working day. Sector punishment: A penalty incurred by a miner of a disrupted sector for which no error was reported before the WindowPoSt inspection. The sector will pay an error fee after the penalty of the sector once the error is discovered. Termination Fee: A penalty that a miner incurs when a sector is voluntary or involuntarily terminated and removed from the network. Cutting consensus error is the penalty that a miner incurs for committing consensus errors. This punishment applies to miners who have acted maliciously against the network consensus function. Filecoin miners Eight of the top 10 Felticoin miners are Chinese investors or companies, according to the blockchain explorer, while more companies are selling cloud mining contracts and distributed file sharing system hardware. CoinDesk’s Wolfe Chao wrote: “China’s craze for Filecoin may have been largely related to the long-standing popularity of crypto mining in the country overall, which is home to about 65% of the computing power on Bitcoin at discretion.” With Filecoin approaching the launch of the mainnet blocknet — after several delays since the $ 200 million increase in 2017 — Chinese investors are once again speculating strongly about network mining devices and their premium prices. Since Protocol Labs, the company behind Filecoin, released its “Test Incentives” program on June 9 that was scheduled to start in a week’s time, more than a dozen Chinese companies have started selling cloud mining contracts and hardware — despite important details such as economics Mining incentives on the main network are still endless. Sales volumes to date for each of these companies can range from half a million to tens of millions of dollars, according to self-reported data on these platforms that CoinDesk has watched and interviews with several mining hardware manufacturers. Filecoin’s goal is to build a distributed storage network with token rewards to spur storage hosting as a way to drive wider adoption. Protocol Labs launched a test network in December 2019. But the tokens mined in the testing environment so far are not representative of the true silicon coin that can be traded when the main network is turned on. Moreover, the mining incentive economics on testnet do not represent how final block rewards will be available on the main network. However, data from Blockecoin’s blocknetin testnet explorers show that eight out of 10 miners with the most effective mining force on testnet are currently Chinese miners. These eight miners have about 15 petabytes (PB) of effective storage mining power, accounting for more than 85% of the total test of 17.9 petable. For the context, 1 petabyte of hard disk storage = 1000 terabytes (terabytes) = 1 million gigabytes (GB). Filecoin craze in China may be closely related to the long-standing popularity of crypt mining in the country overall, which is home to about 65% of the computing power on Bitcoin by estimation. In addition, there has been a lot of hype in China about foreign exchange mining since 2018, as companies promote all types of devices when the network is still in development. “Encryption mining has always been popular in China,” said Andy Tien, co-founder of 1475, one of several mining hardware manufacturers in Philquin supported by prominent Chinese video indicators such as Fenbushi and Hashkey Capital. “Even though the Velikoyen mining process is more technologically sophisticated, the idea of mining using hard drives instead of specialized machines like Bitcoin ASIC may be a lot easier for retailers to understand,” he said. Meanwhile, according to Feixiaohao, a Chinese service comparable to CoinMarketCap, nearly 50 Chinese crypto exchanges are often somewhat unknown with some of the more well-known exchanges including Gate.io and Biki — have listed trading pairs for Filecoin currency contracts for USDT. In bitcoin mining, at the current difficulty level, one segment per second (TH / s) fragmentation rate is expected to generate around 0.000008 BTC within 24 hours. The higher the number of TH / s, the greater the number of bitcoins it should be able to produce proportionately. But in Filecoin, the efficient mining force of miners depends on the amount of data stamped on the hard drive, not the total size of the hard drive. To close data in the hard drive, the Filecoin miner still needs processing power, i.e. CPU or GPU as well as RAM. More powerful processors with improved software can confine data to the hard drive more quickly, so miners can combine more efficient mining energy faster on a given day. As of this stage, there appears to be no transparent way at the network level for retail investors to see how much of the purchased hard disk drive was purchased which actually represents an effective mining force. The U.S.-based Labs Protocol was behind Filecoin’s initial coin offer for 2017, which raised an astonishing $ 200 million. This was in addition to a $ 50 million increase in private investment supported by notable venture capital projects including Sequoia, Anderson Horowitz and Union Square Ventures. CoinDk’s parent company, CoinDk, has also invested in Protocol Labs. After rounds of delay, Protocol Protocols said in September 2019 that a testnet launch would be available around December 2019 and the main network would be rolled out in the first quarter of 2020. The test started as promised, but the main network has been delayed again and is now expected to launch in August 2020. What is Filecoin mining process? Filecoin mainly consists of three parts: the storage market (the chain), the blockecin Filecoin, and the search market (under the chain). Storage and research market in series and series respectively for security and efficiency. For users, the storage frequency is relatively low, and the security requirements are relatively high, so the storage process is placed on the chain. The retrieval frequency is much higher than the storage frequency when there is a certain amount of data. Given the performance problem in processing data on the chain, the retrieval process under the chain is performed. In order to solve the security issue of payment in the retrieval process, Filecoin adopts the micro-payment strategy. In simple terms, the process is to split the document into several copies, and every time the user gets a portion of the data, the corresponding fee is paid. Types of mines corresponding to Filecoin’s two major markets are miners and warehousers, among whom miners are primarily responsible for storing data and block packages, while miners are primarily responsible for data query. After the stable operation of the major Filecoin network in the future, the mining operator will be introduced, who is the main responsible for data maintenance. In the initial release of Filecoin, the request matching mechanism was not implemented in the storage market and retrieval market, but the takeover mechanism was adopted. The three main parts of Filecoin correspond to three processes, namely the stored procedure, retrieval process, packaging and reward process. The following figure shows the simplified process and the income of the miners: The Filecoin mining process is much more complicated, and the important factor in determining the previous mining profit is efficient storage. Effective storage is a key feature that distinguishes Filecoin from other decentralized storage projects. In Filecoin’s EC consensus, effective storage is similar to interest in PoS, which determines the likelihood that a miner will get the right to fill, that is, the proportion of miners effectively stored in the entire network is proportional to final mining revenue. It is also possible to obtain higher effective storage under the same hardware conditions by improving the mining algorithm. However, the current increase in the number of benefits that can be achieved by improving the algorithm is still unknown. It seeks to promote mining using Filecoin Discover Filecoin announced Filecoin Discover — a step to encourage miners to join the Filecoin network. According to the company, Filecoin Discover is “an ever-growing catalog of numerous petabytes of public data covering literature, science, art, and history.” Miners interested in sharing can choose which data sets they want to store, and receive that data on a drive at a cost. In exchange for storing this verified data, miners will earn additional Filecoin above the regular block rewards for storing data. Includes the current catalog of open source data sets; ENCODE, 1000 Genomes, Project Gutenberg, Berkley Self-driving data, more projects, and datasets are added every day. Ian Darrow, Head of Operations at Filecoin, commented on the announcement: “Over 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created every day. This data includes 294 billion emails, 500 million tweets and 64 billion messages on social media. But it is also climatology reports, disease tracking maps, connected vehicle coordinates and much more. It is extremely important that we maintain data that will serve as the backbone for future research and discovery”. Miners who choose to participate in Filecoin Discover may receive hard drives pre-loaded with verified data, as well as setup and maintenance instructions, depending on the company. The Filecoin team will also host the Slack (fil-Discover-support) channel where miners can learn more. Filecoin got its fair share of obstacles along the way. Last month Filecoin announced a further delay before its main network was officially launched — after years of raising funds. In late July QEBR (OTC: QEBR) announced that it had ceded ownership of two subsidiaries in order to focus all of the company’s resources on building blockchain-based mining operations. The QEBR technology team previously announced that it has proven its system as a Filecoin node valid with CPU, GPU, bandwidth and storage compatibility that meets all IPFS guidelines. The QEBR test system is connected to the main Filecoin blockchain and the already mined filecoin coin has already been tested. “The disclosure of Sheen Boom and Jihye will allow our team to focus only on the upcoming global launch of Filecoin. QEBR branch, Shenzhen DZD Digital Technology Ltd. (“ DZD “), has a strong background in blockchain development, extraction Data, data acquisition, data processing, data technology research. We strongly believe Filecoin has the potential to be a leading blockchain-based cryptocurrency and will make every effort to make QEBR an important player when Mainecoin mainnet will be launched soon”. IPFS and Filecoin Filecoin and IPFS are complementary protocols for storing and sharing data in a decentralized network. While users are not required to use Filecoin and IPFS together, the two combined are working to resolve major failures in the current web infrastructure. IPFS It is an open source protocol that allows users to store and transmit verifiable data with each other. IPFS users insist on data on the network by installing it on their own device, to a third-party cloud service (known as Pinning Services), or through community-oriented systems where a group of individual IPFS users share resources to ensure the content stays live. The lack of an integrated catalytic mechanism is the challenge Filecoin hopes to solve by allowing users to catalyze long-term distributed storage at competitive prices through the storage contract market, while maintaining the efficiency and flexibility that the IPFS network provides. Using IPFS In IPFS, the data is hosted by the required data installation nodes. For data to persist while the user node is offline, users must either rely on their other peers to install their data voluntarily or use a central install service to store data. Peer-to-peer reliance caching data may be a good thing as one or multiple organizations share common files on an internal network, or where strong social contracts can be used to ensure continued hosting and preservation of content in the long run. Most users in an IPFS network use an installation service. Using Filecoin The last option is to install your data in a decentralized storage market, such as Filecoin. In Filecoin’s structure, customers make regular small payments to store data when a certain availability, while miners earn those payments by constantly checking the integrity of this data, storing it, and ensuring its quick recovery. This allows users to motivate Filecoin miners to ensure that their content will be live when it is needed, a distinct advantage of relying only on other network users as required using IPFS alone. Filecoin, powered by IPFS It is important to know that Filecoin is built on top of IPFS. Filecoin aims to be a very integrated and seamless storage market that takes advantage of the basic functions provided by IPFS, they are connected to each other, but can be implemented completely independently of each other. Users do not need to interact with Filecoin in order to use IPFS. Some advantages of sharing Filecoin with IPFS:
Filecoin and IPFS CIDs share hash specifications.
Use libp2p by Filecoin nodes to create secure connections with each other.
Messaging between nodes and cluster propagation is facilitated in Filecoin by libp2p pubsub.
IPLD use for blockchain data structures.
Use Graphsync to transfer data between nodes.
Of all the decentralized storage projects, Filecoin is undoubtedly the most interested, and IPFS has been running stably for two years, fully demonstrating the strength of its core protocol. Filecoin’s ability to obtain market share from traditional central storage depends on end-user experience and storage price. Currently, most Filecoin nodes are posted in the IDC room. Actual deployment and operation costs are not reduced compared to traditional central cloud storage, and the storage process is more complicated. PoRep and PoSt, which has a large number of proofs of unknown operation, are required to cause the actual storage cost to be so, in the early days of the release of Filecoin. The actual cost of storing data may be higher than the cost of central cloud storage, but the initial storage node may reduce the storage price in order to obtain block rewards, which may result in the actual storage price lower than traditional central cloud storage. In the long term, Filecoin still needs to take full advantage of its P2P storage, convert storage devices from specialization to civil use, and improve its algorithms to reduce storage costs without affecting user experience. The storage problem is an important problem to be solved in the blockchain field, so a large number of storage projects were presented at the 19th Web3 Summit. IPFS is an important part of Web3 visibility. Its development will affect the development of Web3 to some extent. Likewise, Web3 development somewhat determines the future of IPFS. Filecoin is an IPFS-based storage class project initiated by IPFS. There is no doubt that he is highly expected. Resources :
Problem: I am running python codes for a few million iterations and my computer can't handle the workload. It ends up crashing and and my CPU and Memory usage are through the roof. (Specs: i5-7200U CPU 2.50 GHz 2.70 GHz, 8G RAM) Solutions I am thinking: 1) Build a cluster computer from Raspberry Pis but I dont know how to calculate how many Pis (nodes) I need and if this is the best solution. 2) Build a custom computer but I am not sure what specs I need. I am aware that people in bitcoin mining use crazy FLOP rates and I thought I can use a similar product to run my programming project however, I am confused because some use CPU/GPU methods and others use strong graphic cards. I will only use the new computer system to run my programming codes i.e. no requirements for gaming, movies etc. I welcome any ideas you might have and would love some help.
A FPGA opensource miner has just been released running at 80Mhps but at a cost of $585. The efficiency is stated below quoted from a post in the thread.
At 80 MHps, I will need at least 3 of these to achieve a single 5830 hashrate. That is $595.-x 3 = $1785.- at full price, vs. $190.- for the 5830. Giving the 5830 is consuming $11.- a month in electricity, and assuming this board will consume zero electricity, it will take more than 145 months, or 12 years to recover the investment, always comparing to a 5830.
Apologies but no more development information will be posted. I've been offered a 25% share from someone that owns 2 FPGA clusters. If you haven't seen that type of hardware before think a 156 FPGAs per machine.
From those posts what we can understand is that the factors that affect FPGA now are high procurement cost, low running cost and ease of scalability . What this means is that with the increasing total hash rate of the network (30Ghash/day last difficultly adjustment) the question becomes when would the difficulty render GPU inefficient in contrast to running cost? Remember to take into account FPGAs are usually run in clusters and even though it would not be beneficial to buy one outright, those who have access to FPGA are the first movers and eventual dominant forces of the mining market. Of course, in the end, ASIC is where it's at. Anyone? =D Edit: read more stuff, added info.
Note: Previously the Evolution Whitepapers were linked in this section. These papers were written back in 2015 and are outdated, because Dash Evolution has seen a massive re-design and has been developed much further than those papers could have predicted. A new version will be posted here and elsewhere as soon as it is available.
"Dash rebranded from Darkcoin to distance itself from its dark history!!" -> Not at all. Nothing about its history is "dark" and more importantly this thread called "The Birth of Darkcoin" is stickied by Evan Duffield himself on the official main forum.
Why saying "Dash is a company" is false: Dash Core Inc., a company based in Scottsdale, Arizona is not the decentralized network called Dash. The network, consistent of over 4.5k globally distributed, decentralized Masternodes decided to hire and fund the company Dash Core Inc. to develop said network. This is the distinguishing property of Dash being a DAO, so it's understandable people have difficulty grasping the concept. Similarly Dash does not have a CEO, while Dash Core Inc. -obviously- has.
Dash does not and never had a "dev tax": Dash has a Treasury and its distribution is being voted on each month. Only those funds that have been approved by the Masternode network go to proposal owners. The Treasury is capped at 10% of the accumulated block reward of one month. There is no central authority non-requested or non-approved funds go to and there never has been. Those funds are simply not created. So you can have months in which only 8% of the budget is being paid out, with the remaining 2% going to nobody due to not being mined.
"B-but Evan Duffield can roll back the last 24 hours of the blockchain with the flick of a button!" Complete bullshit. The key in question refers to requiring a Masternode to re-validate its pre-existing blockchain in order to ensure it's on the right chain. Masternodes have nothing do with putting or removing transactions into or from the blockchain, only the miners can do that, thus claiming someone can "roll back the blockchain" in Dash is a malicious lie and a desperate attempt to make Dash look centralized when it's not. In short: No such button exists, ever existed or will ever exist.
The Dash community is well aware that during most of its history this project has been under attack by competitors, many of which are trying to portray Dash (among many other things) as a failure. This is oxymoronic, because nobody hates on failures, especially not for 4 successful years in a row. If you want a quick history lesson, here's a comment I made on where the Dash hate originated from back in 2014 Another, longer history lesson Remain skeptical towards sensational accusations without evidence. Our community is helpful, knowledgeable and more than happy to answer any questions, as we have done many times on this subreddit. Still, we're all only human, have limited resources and we're just one project among many (always among the top, though!). Stakeholders and investors of other projects will always have an agenda to smear what they perceive as competition (I have yet to see our community actively go after other projects, though). Just remember the Bullshit Asymmetry: "The amount of energy required to refute bullshit is at least an order of magnitude larger than to produce it." So it would be very unjust to expect a refutation on the spot all of the time. Prefer taking the initiative by asking the community directly about the claim you're confronted with. This community has proven many times to possess the integrity required to admit to technological shortcomings, but at the same time we'll never hesitate to call out illegitimate claims and accusations, of which there are many, for what they are. The most common and most empty attack is "Dash is a scam".
Dash has surpassed its all-time high price several times
Its developers are publicly known, many by full name
It's still being developed after almost 4 years with an incredible track record of under-promising and over-delivering, a game-changing roadmap & a clear vision of the future
Its technology works as advertised and remains objectively superior to Bitcoin and many other currencies
Myriads of projects copied Dash's features
Look at the wealth of in-depth information linked on this page alone. Look at all the interviews, articles, news shows, podcasts, presentations, conferences, infrastructure, the people and all the money invested into all of this: Does this all really look like a grandiose scam? Why the effort?
More importantly you have to ask the critic just this one question: Who was scammed? The answer usually consists of complete silence or attempts to change the topic. This may sound all very defensive to someone who has never experienced the kind of FUD Dash has faced over the years, but the falsehoods we've refuted above are still being perpetuated by a very lonely but also very loud minority.
Not an ICO project
Regarding Dash's finances: Despite what many people assume influenced by the ICO insanity of the recent past, Dash did not have an ICO and Dash does not depend on 3rd party funding/investors. It is self funded from the blockchain and thus an entirely independent organization that does exactly what it wants, not what any angel investors want us to do. Dash is the first currency in history to achieve that.
Quick incomplete rundown of Dash's features
In fact Dash pioneered almost every single one of its features making it one of the most prolific innovators in the cryptocurrency space. Before Dash invented them, none of these features existed:
X11: power saving hashing algorithm
Dark Gravity Wave: highly reliable difficulty adjustment
Sporks: Multi-phased forking technology avoiding hard forks during network upgrades
Masternodes: Incentivized full node infrastructure through split of mining reward
PrivateSend: protocol level coin mixing without the flaws of CoinJoin
Treasury: Self-funding by splitting of block reward
Blockchain Governance: Voting rights for those who provide our network's backbone
Evolution platform technology: Under heavy development but making rapid progress towards true digital cash so user-friendly that even your grandmother could use it
To re-iterate a previous point: Dash has been copied by several dozen other projects either completely or through selected features indicating a strong approval of its technology within the wider cryptocurrency industry. The most copied feature by far is the Masternode system and the financial self-reliance it provides.
What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space?
How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus?
What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement this?
What is Nexus’ Unified Time protocol?
Why does Nexus need its own satellite network?
The Nexus Currency:
How can I get Nexus?
How much does a transaction cost?
How fast does Nexus transfer?
Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded?
Is there a cap on the number of Nexus in existence?
What is the difference between the Oracle wallet and the LLD wallet?
How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet?
How do I install the Nexus Wallet?
Types of Mining or Minting:
Can I mine Nexus?
How do I mine Nexus?
How do I stake Nexus?
I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are trust weight, block weight and stake weight?
1. What is Nexus (NXS)? Nexus is a digital currency, distributed framework, and peer-to-peer network. Nexus further improves upon the blockchain protocol by focusing on the following core technological principles:
Nexus will combine our in-development quantum-resistant 3D blockchain software with cutting edge communication satellites to deliver a free, distributed, financial and data solution. Through our planned satellite and ground-based mesh networks, Nexus will provide uncensored internet access whilst bringing the benefits of distributed database systems to the world. For a short video introduction to Nexus Earth, please visit this link
2. What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space? As Nexus has been developed, an incredible amount of time has been put into identifying and solving several key limitations:
Quantum computing vulnerability
Centralized network access
Slow difficulty adjustment
Slow block times
Block reward halving
Nexus is also developing a framework called the Lower Level Library. This LLL will incorporate the following improvements:
LLC (Lower Level Cryptography): This is a suite of cutting edge cryptographic methods including hashing, asymmetric encryption, digital signatures, and symmetric encryption algorithms
LLP (Lower Level Protocol): This is a template protocol to allow any protocol to be created with ease without the need for repeated network programming.
LLD (Lower Level Database): This is a set of templates for creating high efficiency database systems. This high efficiency can be used to power large websites, which are currently built with database software that is not designed to scale.
For information about more additions to the Lower Level Library, please visit here
3. How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus? Nexus is unique amongst blockchain technology in that Nexus uses 3 channels to secure the network against attack. Whereas Bitcoin uses only Proof-of-Work to secure the network, Nexus combines a prime number channel, a hashing channel and a Proof-of-Stake channel. Where Bitcoin has a difficulty adjustment interval measured in weeks, Nexus can respond to increased hashrate in the space of 1 block and each channel scales independently of the other two channels. This stabilizes the block times at ~50 seconds and ensures no single channel can monopolize block production. This means that a 51% attack is much more difficult to launch because an attacker would need to control all 3 channels. Every 60 minutes, the Nexus protocol automatically creates a checkpoint. This prevents blocks from being created or modified dated prior to this checkpoint, thus protecting the chain from malicious attempts to introduce an alternate blockchain.
4. What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement it? To understand what quantum resistance is and why it is important, you need to understand how quantum computing works and why it’s a threat to blockchain technology. Classical computing uses an array of transistors. These transistors form the heart of your computer (the CPU). Each transistor is capable of being either on or off, and these states are used to represent the numerical values 1 and 0. Binary digits’ (bits) number of states depends on the number of transistors available, according to the formula 2n, where n is the number of transistors. Classical computers can only be in one of these states at any one time, so the speed of your computer is limited to how fast it can change states. Quantum computers utilize quantum bits, “qubits,” which are represented by the quantum state of electrons or photons. These particles are placed into a state called superposition, which allows the qubit to assume a value of 1 or 0 simultaneously. Superposition permits a quantum computer to process a higher number of data possibilities than a classical computer. Qubits can also become entangled. Entanglement makes a qubit dependant on the state of another, enabling quantum computing to calculate complex problems, extremely quickly. One such problem is the Discrete Logarithm Problem which elliptic curve cryptography relies on for security. Quantum computers can use Shor’s algorithm to reverse a key in polynomial time (which is really really really fast). This means that public keys become vulnerable to quantum attack, since quantum computers are capable of being billions of times faster at certain calculations. One way to increase quantum resistance is to require more qubits (and more time) by using larger private keys: Bitcoin Private Key (256 bit) 5Kb8kLf9zgWQnogidDA76MzPL6TsZZY36hWXMssSzNydYXYB9KF Nexus Private Key (571 bit) 6Wuiv513R18o5cRpwNSCfT7xs9tniHHN5Lb3AMs58vkVxsQdL4atHTF Vt5TNT9himnCMmnbjbCPxgxhSTDE5iAzCZ3LhJFm7L9rCFroYoqz Bitcoin addresses are created by hashing the public key, so it is not possible to decrypt the public key from the address; however, once you send funds from that address, the public key is published on the blockchain rendering that address vulnerable to attack. This means that your money has higher chances of being stolen. Nexus eliminates these vulnerabilities through an innovation called signature chains. Signature chains will enable access to an account using a username, password and PIN. When you create a transaction on the network, you claim ownership of your signature chain by revealing the public key of the NextHash (the hash of your public key) and producing a signature from the one time use private key. Your wallet then creates a new private/public keypair, generates a new NextHash, including the corresponding contract. This contract can be a receive address, a debit, a vote, or any other type of rule that is written in the contract code. This keeps the public key obscured until the next transaction, and by divorcing the address from the public key, it is unnecessary to change addresses in order to change public keys. Changing your password or PIN code becomes a case of proving ownership of your signature chain and broadcasting a new transaction with a new NextHash for your new password and/or PIN. This provides the ability to login to your account via the signature chain, which becomes your personal chain within the 3D chain, enabling the network to prove and disprove trust, and improving ease of use without sacrificing security. The next challenge with quantum computers is that Grover’s algorithm reduces the security of one-way hash function by a factor of two. Because of this, Nexus incorporates two new hash functions, Skein and Keccak, which were designed in 2008 as part of a contest to create a new SHA3 standard. Keccak narrowly defeated Skein to win the contest, so to maximize their potential Nexus combines these algorithms. Skein and Keccak utilize permutation to rotate and mix the information in the hash. To maintain a respective 256/512 bit quantum resistance, Nexus uses up to 1024 bits in its proof-of-work, and 512 bits for transactions.
5. What is the Unified Time protocol? All blockchains use time-stamping mechanisms, so it is important that all nodes operate using the same clock. Bitcoin allows for up to 2 hours’ discrepancy between nodes, which provides a window of opportunity for the blockchain to be manipulated by time-related attack vectors. Nexus eliminates this vulnerability by implementing a time synchronization protocol termed Unified Time. Unified Time also enhances transaction processing and will form an integral part of the 3D chain scaling solution. The Unified Time protocol facilitates a peer-to-peer timing system that keeps all clocks on the network synchronized to within a second. This is seeded by selected nodes with timestamps derived from the UNIX standard; that is, the number of seconds since January 1st, 1970 00:00 UTC. Every minute, the seed nodes report their current time, and a moving average is used to calculate the base time. Any node which sends back a timestamp outside a given tolerance is rejected. It is important to note that the Nexus network is fully synchronized even if an individual wallet displays something different from the local time.
6. Why does Nexus need its own satellite network? One of the key limitations of a purely electronic monetary system is that it requires a connection to the rest of the network to verify transactions. Existing network infrastructure only services a fraction of the world’s population. Nexus, in conjunction with Vector Space Systems, is designing communication satellites, or cubesats, to be launched into Low Earth Orbit in 2019. Primarily, the cubesat mesh network will exist to give Nexus worldwide coverage, but Nexus will also utilize its orbital and ground mesh networks to provide free and uncensored internet access to the world.
The Nexus Currency (NXS):
1. How can I get Nexus? There are two ways you can obtain Nexus. You can either buy Nexus from an exchange, or you can run a miner and be rewarded for finding a block. If you wish to mine Nexus, please follow our guide found below. Currently, Nexus is available on the following exchanges:
Bittrex (99% of trade volume)
Upbit (South Korea)
Nexus is actively reaching out to other exchanges to continue to be listed on cutting edge new financial technologies..
2. How much does a transaction cost? Under Nexus, the fee structure for making a transaction depends on the size of your transaction. A default fee of 0.01 NXS will cover most transactions, and users have the option to pay higher fees to ensure their transactions are processed quickly. When the 3D chain is complete and the initial 10-year distribution period finishes, Nexus will absorb these fees through inflation, enabling free transactions.
3. How fast does Nexus transfer? Nexus reaches consensus approximately every ~ 50 seconds. This is an average time, and will in some circumstances be faster or slower. NXS currency which you receive is available for use after just 6 confirmations. A confirmation is proof from a node that the transaction has been included in a block. The number of confirmations in this transaction is the number that states how many blocks it has been since the transaction is included. The more confirmations a transaction has, the more secure its placement in the blockchain is.
4. Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded? The Nexus Embassy, a 501(C)(3) not-for-profit corporation, develops and maintains the Nexus blockchain software. When Nexus began under the name Coinshield, the early blocks were mined using the Developer and Exchange (Ambassador) addresses, which provides funding for the Nexus Embassy. The Developer Fund fuels ongoing development and is sourced by a 1.5% commission per block mined, which will slowly increase to 2.5% after 10 years. This brings all the benefits of development funding without the associated risks. The Ambassador (renamed from Exchange) keys are funded by a 20% commission per block reward. These keys are mainly used to pay for marketing, and producing and launching the Nexus satellites. When Nexus introduces developer and ambassador contracts, they will be approved, denied, or removed by six voting groups namely: currency, developer, ambassador, prime, hash, and trust. Please Note: The Nexus Embassy reserves the sole right to trade, sell and or use these funds as required; however, Nexus will endeavor to minimize the impact that the use of these funds has upon the NXS market value.
5. Is there a cap on the number of NXS in existence? After an initial 10-year distribution period ending on September 23rd, 2024, there will be a total of 78 million NXS. Over this period, the reward gradient for mining Nexus follows a decaying logarithmic curve instead of the reward halving inherent in Bitcoin. This avoids creating a situation where older mining equipment is suddenly unprofitable, encouraging miners to continue upgrading their equipment over time and at the same time reducing major market shocks on block halving events. When the distribution period ends, the currency supply will inflate annually by a maximum of 3% via staking and by 1% via the prime and hashing channels. This inflation is completely unlike traditional inflation, which degrades the value of existing coins. Instead, the cost of providing security to the blockchain is paid by inflation, eliminating transaction fees. Colin Cantrell - Nexus Inflation Explained
6. What is the difference between the LLD wallet and the Oracle wallet? Due to the scales of efficiency needed by blockchain, Nexus has developed a custom-built database called the Lower Level Database. Since the development of the LLD wallet 0.2.3.1, which is a precursor to the Tritium updates, you should begin using the LLD wallet to take advantage of the faster load times and improved efficiency. The Oracle wallet is a legacy wallet which is no longer maintained or updated. It utilized the Berkeley DB, which is not designed to meet the needs of a blockchain. Eventually, users will need to migrate to the LLD wallet. Fortunately, the wallet.dat is interchangeable between wallets, so there is no risk of losing access to your NXS.
7. How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet? Step 1 - Backup your wallet.dat file. You can do this from within the Oracle wallet Menu, Backup Wallet. Step 2 - Uninstall the Oracle wallet. Close the wallet and navigate to the wallet data directory. On Windows, this is the Nexus folder located at %APPDATA%\Nexus. On macOS, this is the Nexus folder located at ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus. Move all of the contents to a temporary folder as a backup. Step 3 - Copy your backup of wallet.dat into the Nexus folder located as per Step 2. Step 4 - Install the Nexus LLD wallet. Please follow the steps as outlined in the next section. Once your wallet is fully synced, your new wallet will have access to all your addresses.
8. How do I install the Nexus Wallet? You can install your Nexus wallet by following these steps: Step 1 - Download your wallet from www.nexusearth.com. Click the Downloads menu at the top and select the appropriate wallet for your operating system. Step 2 - Unzip the wallet program to a folder. Before running the wallet program, please consider space limitations and load times. On the Windows OS, the wallet saves all data to the %APPDATA%\Nexus folder, including the blockchain, which is currently ~3GB. On macOS, data is saved to the ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus folder. You can create a symbolic link, which will allow you to install this information in another location. Using Windows, follow these steps:
Step 3 (optional) - Before running the wallet, we recommend downloading the blockchain database manually. Nexus Earth maintains a copy of the blockchain data which can save hours from the wallet synchronization process. Please go to www.nexusearth.com and click the Downloads menu. Step 4 (optional) - Extract the database file. This is commonly found in the .zip or .rar format, so you may need a program like 7zip to extract the contents. Please extract it to the relevant directory, as outlined in step 2. Step 5 - You can now start your wallet. After it loads, it should be able to complete synchronization in a short time. This may still take a couple of hours. Once it has completed synchronizing, a green check mark icon will appear in the lower right corner of the wallet. Step 6 - Encrypt your wallet. This can be done within the wallet, under the Settings menu. Encrypting your wallet will lock it, requiring a password in order to send transactions. Step 7 - Backup your wallet.dat file. This can be done from the File menu inside the wallet. This file contains the keys to the addresses in your wallet. You may wish to keep a secure copy of your password somewhere, too, in case you forget it or someone else (your spouse, for example) ever needs it. You should back up your wallet.dat file again any time you create – or a Genesis transaction creates (see “staking” below) – a new address.
Types of Mining or Minting:
1.Can I mine Nexus? Yes, there are 2 channels that you can use to mine Nexus, and 1 channel of minting: Prime Mining Channel This mining channel looks for a special prime cluster of a set length. This type of calculation is resistant to ASIC mining, allowing for greater decentralization. This is most often performed using the CPU. Hashing Channel This channel utilizes the more traditional method of hashing. This process adds a random nonce, hashes the data, and compares the resultant hash against a predetermined format set by the difficulty. This is most often performed using a GPU. Proof of Stake (nPoS) Staking is a form of mining NXS. With this process, you can receive NXS rewards from the network for continuously operating your node (wallet). It is recommended that you only stake with a minimum balance of 1000 NXS. It’s not impossible to stake with less, but it becomes harder to maintain trust. Losing trust resets the interest rate back to 0.5% per annum.
2. How do I mine Nexus? As outlined above, there are two types of mining and 1 proof of stake. Each type of mining uses a different component of your computer to find blocks, the CPU or the GPU. Nexus supports CPU and GPU mining on Windows only. There are also third-party macOS builds available. Please follow the instructions below for the relevant type of miner.
Prime Mining: Almost every CPU is capable of mining blocks on this channel. The most effective method of mining is to join a mining pool and receive a share of the rewards based on the contribution you make. To create your own mining facility, you need the CPU mining software, and a NXS address. This address cannot be on an exchange. You create an address when you install your Nexus wallet. You can find the related steps under How Do I Install the Nexus Wallet? Please download the relevant miner from http://nexusearth.com/mining.html. Please note that there are two different miner builds available: the prime solo miner and the prime pool miner. This guide will walk you through installing the pool miner only. Step 1 - Extract the archive file to a folder. Step 2 - Open the miner.conf file. You can use the default host and port, but these may be changed to a pool of your choice. You will need to change the value of nxs_address to the address found in your wallet. Sieve_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to use to find primes. Ptest_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to test the primes found by the sieve. As a general rule, the number of threads used for the sieve should be 75% of the threads used for testing. It is also recommended to add the following line to the options found in the .conf file: "experimental" : "true" This option enables the miner to use an improved sieve algorithm which will enable your miner to find primes at a faster rate. Step 3 - Run the nexus_cpuminer.exe file. For a description of the information shown in this application, please read this guide.
Hashing: The GPU is a dedicated processing unit housed on-board your graphics card. The GPU is able to perform certain tasks extremely well, unlike your CPU, which is designed for parallel processing. Nexus supports both AMD and Nvidia GPU mining, and works best on the newer models. Officially, Nexus does not support GPU pool mining, but there are 3rd party miners with this capability. The latest software for the Nvidia miner can be found here. The latest software for the AMD miner can be found here. The AMD miner is a third party miner. Information and advice about using the AMD miner can be found on our Slack channel. This guide will walk you through the Nvidia miner. Step 1 - Close your wallet. Navigate to %appdata%\Nexus (~/Library/Application Support/Nexus on macOS) and open the nexus.conf file. Depending on your wallet, you may or may not have this file. If not, please create a new txt file and save it as nexus.conf You will need to add the following lines before restarting your wallet:
Step 2 - Extract the files into a new folder. Step 3 - Run the nexus.bat file. This will run the miner and deposit any rewards for mining a block into the account on your wallet. For more information on either Prime Mining or Hashing, please join our Slack and visit the #mining channel. Additional information can be found here.
3. How do I stake Nexus? Once you have your wallet installed, fully synchronized and encrypted, you can begin staking by:
Choosing Unlock Wallet from the Settings menu
Check the box that says "Unlock for Mint Only", then enter your password.
When the question mark at the lower right of the wallet window changes to a clock icon, you are now staking.
After you begin staking, you will receive a Genesis transaction as your first staking reward. This establishes a Trust key in your wallet and stakes your wallet balance on that key. From that point, you will periodically receive additional Trust transactions as further staking rewards for as long as your Trust key remains active. IMPORTANT - After you receive a Genesis transaction, backup your wallet.dat file immediately. You can select the Backup Wallet option from the File menu, or manually copy the file directly. If you do not do this, then your Nexus balance will be staked on the Trust key that you do not have backed up, and you risk loss if you were to suffer a hard drive failure or other similar problem. In the future, signature chains will make this precaution unnecessary.
4. I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are interest rate, trust weight, block weight, and stake weight? These items affect the size and frequency of staking rewards after you receive your initial Genesis transaction. When staking is active, the wallet displays a clock icon in the bottom right corner. If you hover your mouse pointer over the icon, a tooltip-style display will open up, showing their current values. Please remember to backup your wallet.dat file (see question 3 above) after you receive a Genesis transaction. Interest Rate - The minting rate at which you will receive staking rewards, displayed as an annual percentage of your NXS balance. It starts at 0.5%, increasing to 3% after 12 months. The rate increase is not linear but slows over time. It takes several weeks to reach 1% and around 3 months to reach 2%. With this rate, you can calculate the average amount of NXS you can expect to receive each day for staking. Trust Weight - An indication of how much the network trusts your node. It starts at 5% and increases much more quickly than the minting (interest) rate, reaching 100% after one month. Your level of trust increases your stake weight (below), thus increasing your chances of receiving staking transactions. It becomes easier to maintain trust as this value increases. Block Weight - Upon receipt of a Genesis transaction, this value will begin increasing slowly, reaching 100% after 24 hours. Every time you receive a staking transaction, the block weight resets. If your block weight reaches 100%, then your Trust key expires and everything resets (0.5% interest rate, 5% trust weight, waiting for a new Genesis transaction). This 24-hour requirement will be replaced by a gradual decay in the Tritium release. As long as you receive a transaction before it decays completely, you will hold onto your key. This change addresses the potential of losing your trust key after months of staking simply because of one unlucky day receiving trust transactions. Stake Weight - The higher your stake weight, the greater your chance of receiving a transaction. The exact value is a derived by a formula using your trust weight and block weight, which roughly equals the average of the two. Thus, each time you receive a transaction, your stake weight will reset to approximately half of your current level of trust.
Guys; We need your CPU Power. Please help me make it fun!
edit: Make an account on worldcommunitygrid.org and join team Pcmasterrace! Then just download the client and the rest is self-explanatory Hey, I'm one of the many "scientists" working on crazy-large simulations of systems, most of which focus on protein folding but there's all sorts of other neat stuff with it. A lot of people relate donated cpu power to Bitcoin mining minus the profits. First of all, no, second of all, we don't have the luxury of GPU Acceleration. The support for GPUs is minimal and through my experience only offers a 2x boost; honestly hardly worth the heat. These simulations take well over a week and a half to complete on the cluster (supercomputer; if you wanna get excited). My specific team is working on Alzheimer's but I know for a fact the same Software and equations need to be solved for Cancer and HIV projects. I CAN CONFIRM FIRST-HANDTHIS STUFF MAKES A HUGE FUCKING DIFFERENCE. And there's ways to make it competitive with team leaderboards for donations (ranked worldwide, I'm thinking PCMasterRace could do some damage.) Is there any chance the community would be willing to start a team on worldcommunitygrid? I was thinking weekly winners could get free steam games from other brothers or something along the lines of that? edit2: you can set cpu usage to 1% even if you wanted to; preferences is very full-fleshed edit3: the member count is going up!! you guys are the best! Keep signing up! I can't wait to tell my boss about this. edit4: WCG is doing an update on the stats so you might not be able to join the team for a few minutes but you can still get yourself going and we can still see that contribution :)
Q: There are so many blockchains these days and they are quite competitive. What plans does QuarkChain have in place to encourage the community to support this project continuously? A: We will continue to post our development process, ecosystem building and many more on our social media including Twitter, Telegram, Medium, Steemit, and Reddit. Except for previous 100+ volunteers helping us test our testnet, since our testnet 1.0 has been released, there are more than 3000 community members have joined the testing. We also have developer communities which are under development.
Q: Can you introduce your partners? A: We have built strategic partnerships with 30+ global projects such as Tripio, Bodhi, and Laya.one. We also have plans to build deeper relationships with 10 projects including Covalent Chain, DxChain, Drep, Playtable, ValPromise, Ankr, MXC, LendChain, EON, and Celer. Besides, we also partner with Certik in Smart Contract audit. More partnership will be built.
Q: What’s next in the roadmap? A: We will introduce our next plans in three major parts.
1）Development The first thing we need to do is to make sure our testnet is stable and keep optimizing our systems. We have found that there are many places, not only in scalability part but also in virtual machine and storage part, that we can improve in the following several months. We are also preparing articles of our technical details for open source several months later. We want to encourage community members to participate in our project and make our project not only our own project but also the community’s project. Another big thing we are focusing on currently is our mainnet which will be launched in several months. The main feature of the mainnet is that we can increase capacity on-demand as the network grows, and it will work as a scalable smart contract that can do whatever ETH can do but with greater scalability. 2）Marketing Currently, we only separate our market into Chinese, English, Korean, Japanese, Russian parts. We will have more strategies to open for different markets including, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, India and Europe. We will do more local stuff and enlarge our local community. Moreover, with the launch of testnet, we will build developer communities. At the beginning of August, we are going to hold the biggest hackathon in the Bay Area with Google ABC. There are only three projects to be selected and we are very honored to be one of them. At that time, there will be many programmers from big companies such as Google, Facebook and Linkedin building dApps on top of us on this two-day hackathon. We also have our 50 million eco-fund to establish an open and collaborative ecosystem of QuarkChain and 30 partners after just one month on Binance. 3）Korean Marketing We recently had the signing ceremony with a very strong insurance company in Korea who has revenue of 20 million per year and decides to go blockchain and global. We also have several contracts ready including a leading AI company and leading financial institution in Korea. You will hear more news about Korean marketing very soon.
Q: Why the current circulating supply seems too low compared to the declared total 10 billion circulating supply? Please note that 40% QKC will be used for MINING and is already locked by Smart Contract. Private sale is locked to protect public sale investors. The first release of private sale is 10% and it will be released in about ONE MONTH after the QKC is listed on exchange. You could see the circulating supply schedule detail here: https://support.binance.com/hc/en-us/articles/360004471832-Binance-To-Open-Trading-For-QuarkChain-QKC-and-Risk-Warning Other token allocation includes 15% for the team, 15% for the foundation, and 5% for advisors. These are all locked up to 2 years with vesting plan using smart contract and will be unlocked gradually.
Part 2: Technical Questions
Q: What kind of language is QuarkChain using for development? A: Currently, QuarkChain is developed in Python. The main reason for choosing Python is its fast deployment so that QuarkChain team could focus more on technology. Actually, we already obtain pretty decent performance results these days, and we could easily achieve much higher performance by employing other high-performance languages such as C++ and Go. Note that early Ethereum development also used Python, but later Go implementation becomes popular after Ethereum got more attention.
Q: What does Collaborative Mining of QKC means? A: QuarkChain will utilize GPU-friendly mining algorithms, which is still under development. QuarkChain Network has several minor blockchains (shards) and one root blockchain. Each minor blockchain offers different incentives and difficulties. Miners could choose any minor blockchain at an optimal price of their hash power. This creates an open market economic model, where a blockchain is a seller with goods being the block reward, while a miner is a buyer with hash power being their currency. It is desirable that a marketing model is designed with features ensuring that though each party in the market pursues their interests, the collective behaviors of each party can benefit all. The goal of collaborative mining is to design incentive mechanisms and difficulty algorithms so that (1) Hash powers are incentivized to distribute evenly among shards. This ensures that all shards are mined evenly, and thus the system throughput (i.e., TPS) increases as the number of shards increases; (2) The root chain has a significantly large portion (over 50%) of hash power over the whole hash power of the network. This prevents double-spend attacks, and a malicious miner needs at least 50% * 50% = 25% power to perform an attack.
Q: What is QuarkChain’s relationship with DAG or other Tangle technology? A: “The tangle is what is known as a directed acyclic graph (DAG): a data structure that moves in one direction without looping back onto itself. ” (from https://www.nasdaq.com/article/what-is-the-tangle-and-is-it-blockchains-next-evolutionary-step-cm911074) The system of QuarkChain Network itself can be treated as a well-structured DAG. This allows QuarkChain to inherit a lot of benefits from both blockchain and general DAG technique. For example, the consensus of QuarkChain and its threat model can be easily derived/analyzed following those of Bitcoin/Ethereum blockchain, while QuarkChain achieves high throughput similar to general DAG. Given two blockchains/DAGs of QuarkChain, we could easily tell which one should be appended thanks to QuarkChain’s root chain.
Q: How does cross-shard communication work in QuarkChain? A: The QuarkChain Network fully supports cross-shard transactions as the first-class citizen, in a sense that: (1) Any user could issue any cross-shard transaction at any time; (2) Cross-shard transactions can be confirmed in minutes; (3) The throughput of cross-shard transactions could be scaled linearly as the number of shards increases. In short, the cross-shard transaction is almost the same as in-shard transaction except that the root chain needs to confirm the block header of the transaction before spending the output of the cross-shard transaction.
Q: It seems there would be different nodes with different roles, all interconnected. How do you plan to prevent them from exploiting the role-playing model? As I understand it, you will manage and audit the network of voluntary nodes, then how do you call it “public blockchain”? Also, sharding doesn’t guarantee the persistence of data, nor completeness of the collection of shards. How do you guarantee longtail operation will be smooth and stable? What if there aren’t enough volunteers to participate? A: (1) For the first two questions, nodes (machines) trust each other to form a cluster acting as a full node. Anyone can run their cluster to participate in the network. Thus, we don’t manage clusters directly; (2) For the third question, there will be data completeness for an individual shard. Sharding and persistence are not mutually exclusive and we don’t understand why you think sharding doesn’t guarantee the persistence of data. All major data stored in Amazon, Facebook and Google use sharding to achieve scalability, and we are pretty sure persistence is guaranteed; (3) For the last question, mining is about incentives. We can try to solve the cold start problem by encouraging mining with relative greater incentives at the beginning.
Q: Is that possible to say a dApp to seamlessly run on multiple shards if one shard cannot provide the necessary throughput? If that possible, as cross-shard transactions are slower, wouldn’t that create somewhat of a bottleneck as well? A: There is a topic of a scalable smart contract. We are working toward this feature, and a lot of interesting things are ongoing. Also, it depends on how the dApp is configured as well. Take CPU as an example, once Intel/AMD reached the clock speed limit, they realized multi-core should be the next design paradigm, which means performance software should also change the paradigm to fully leverage multi-core CPU architecture.
Q: Number of Nodes — Can you explain to me if the more nodes, the better? Is that possible for QuarkChain to reach high TPS with fewer nodes (to prevent slower network)? A: It depends on how these nodes are organized. If all nodes would like to reach the same chain consensus, then the more nodes in the network, the slower the network is. Generally speaking, the more nodes in the network, the more decentralized the network is. Thus, we could achieve the high TPS with fewer nodes, but this will sacrifice decentralization, which is what we want to encourage. This shows the trade-off.
Q: Number of shards — How does the number of shards are selected, how many nodes will be there in the number of shards? As per the white paper, each shard will have its difficulty and reward mechanism. How is it defined? So it means miners can switch over between the different shards depending on mining difficulty and can try to get maximum rewards? How is this mitigated? Is there any sort of EDA or there is a limitation for miners switching between shards? How is this more decentralized than usual PoW solution? A: The number of shards is determined by the network situation and could be done by our governance model. The miner could mine any shards, depending on block reward, difficulty, and network propagation of the major miners of the shard. More decentralized is mainly because a miner could mine a shard directly instead of joining a mining pool. The motivation for joining a mining pool is to collect reward timely as an exchange of transaction fee of pooling. By mining the shard directly (as the difficulty is lower), the miner could save transaction fee and encourage more decentralization.
Q: Clustering — It is a good idea where the “honest nodes” are clustered to run as a supernode and will involve the root chain to confirm the transactions between them. There will be the incentive for the nodes to form clustering. How does this “Honest nodes” are selected for clustering or is it something which the nodes can do themselves? If they can do themselves? What prevents the malicious miners to collude and form a cluster of their own? How is this mitigated? A: A cluster is a replacement of a super-full node, but still serving as a peer in the network. Therefore, as long as there are sufficient peers (clusters) in the network, any blocks from the malicious cluster (peer) will be rejected. At the moment, a smart contract can be only administered in one shard. A cross-shard transaction is to transfer QKC from one shard to another shard, and thus a user with a single private key will be able to execute a smart contract transaction in any shard. A cluster — as a replacement of a super-full node — maintains the full ledger of the network and thus knows all chains. In addition, double spending attack is mitigated by root chain’s hash power via root-chain first consensus algorithm. Please refer our white paper for more details.
Q: Does QuarkChain have any plans to move away from the EVM for dApps with many other VM’s coming out, such as NEO’s VM. Or do you intend to create your own VM? A: We may develop our own VM if needed, but this highly depends on the feedback of our dApps partners. Even though there are so many VMs, a lot of them lack systematic supports (such as editor, compiler, debugger). To our best knowledge, EVM is the most-adopted VM right now, and other candidates could be NEO VM, EOS VM, and ETH WASM. Currently, we don’t have the plan to swap VM but will add more supports for new VMs, i.e., adding new shards to support new VMs or even new consensus algorithms. This shows another advantage of our sharding technique on enabling this flexibility. In this situation, QKC will be the GAS, and other VMs may have different token models. We need to figure out the proper way to incorporate them. However, this should happen after the launch of mainnet.
QuarkChain Testnet 1.0 was built based on standardized blockchain system requirements, which included network, wallet, browser, and virtual machine functionalities. Other than the fact that the token was a test currency, the environment was completely compatible with the main network. By enhancing the communication efficiency and security of the network, Testnet 2.0 further improves the openness of the network. In addition, Testnet 2.0 will allow community members (other than citizens or residents of the United States) to contribute directly to the network, i.e. running a full node and mining, and receive testnet tokens as rewards. QuarkChain Testnet 2.0 will support multiple mining algorithms, including two typical algorithms: Ethash and Double SHA256, as well as QuarkChain’s unique algorithm called Qkchash – a customized ASIC-resistant, CPU mining algorithm, exclusively developed by QuarkChain. Mining is available both on the root chain and on shards due to QuarkChain’s two-layered blockchain structure. Miners can flexibly choose to mine on the root chain with higher computing power requirements or on shards based on their own computing power levels. Our Goal By allowing community members to participate in mining on Testnet 2.0, our goal is to enhance QuarkChain’s community consensus, encourage community members to participate in testing and building the QuarkChain network, and gain first-hand experience of QuarkChain’s high flexibility and usability. During this time, we hope that the community can develop a better understanding about our mining algorithms, sharding technologies, and governance structures, etc. Furthermore, this will be a more thorough challenge to QuarkChain’s design before the launch of mainnet! Thus, we sincerely invite you to join the Testnet 2.0 mining event and build QuarkChain’s infrastructure together! Today, we’re pleased to announce that we are officially providing the CPU mining demo to the public (other than citizens and residents of the United States)! Everyone can participate in our mining event, and earn tQKC, which can be exchanged to real rewards by non-U.S. persons after the launch of our mainnet. Also, we expect to upgrade our testnet over time, and expect to allow GPU mining for Ethash, and ASIC mining for Double SHA256 in the future. In addition, in the near future, a mining pool that is compatible with all mining algorithms of QuarkChain is also expected to be supported. We hope all the community members can join in with us, and work together to complete this milestone! 2 Introduction to Mining Algorithms 2.1 What is mining？ Mining is the process of generating the new blocks, in which the records of current transactions are added to the record of past transactions. Miners use software that contribute their mining power to participate in the maintenance of a blockchain. In return, they obtain a certain amount of QKC per block, which is called coinbase reward. Like many other blockchain technologies, QuarkChain adopts the most widely used Proof of Work (PoW) consensus algorithm to secure the network. A cryptographically-secure PoW is a costly and time-consuming process which is difficult to solve due to computation-intensity or memory intensity but easy for others to verify. For a block to be valid it must satisfy certain requirements and hash to a value less than the current target threshold. Reverting a block requires recreating all successor blocks and redoing the work they contain, which is costly. By running a cluster, everyone can become a miner and participate in the mining process. The mining rewards are proportional to the number of blocks mined by each individual. 2.2 Introduction to QuarkChain Algorithms and Mining setup According to QuarkChain’s two-layered blockchain structure and Boson consensus, different shards can apply different consensus and mining algorithms. As part of the Boson consensus, each shard can adjust the difficulty dynamically to increase or decrease the hash power of each shard chain. In order to fully test QuarkChain testnet 2.0, we adopt three different types of mining algorithms” Ethash, Double SHA256, and Qkchash, which is ASIC resistant and exclusively developed by QuarkChain founder Qi Zhou. These first two hash algorithms correspond to the mining algorithms dominantly conducted on the graphics processing unit (GPU) and application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC), respectively. I. Ethash Ethash is the PoW mining algorithm for Ethereum. It is the latest version of earlier Dagger-Hashimoto. Ethash is memory intensive, which makes it require large amounts of memory space in the process of mining. The efficiency of mining is basically independent of the CPU, but directly related to memory size and bandwidth. Therefore, by design, building Ethash ASIC is relatively difficult. Currently, the Ethash mining is dominantly conducted on the GPU machines. Read more about Ethash: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Ethash II. Double SHA256 Double SHA256 is the PoW mining algorithms for Bitcoin. It is computational intensive hash algorithm, which uses two SHA256 iterations for the block header. If the hash result is less than the specific target, the mining is successful. ASIC machine has been developed by Bitmain to find more hashes with less electrical power usage. Read more about Double SHA256: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Block_hashing_algorithm III. Qkchash Originally, Bitcoin mining was conducted on the CPU of individual computers, with more cores and greater speed resulting in more profitability. After that, the mining process became dominated by GPU machines, then field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and finally ASIC, in a race to achieve more hash rates with less electrical power usage. Due to this arms race, it has become increasingly harder for prospective new miners to join. This raises centralization concerns because the manufacturers of the high-performance ASIC are concentrated in a small few. To solve this, after extensive research and development, QuarkChain founder Dr. Qi Zhou has developed mining algorithm — Qkchash, that is expected to be ASIC-resistant. The idea is motivated by the famous date structure orders-statistic tree. Based on this data structure, Qkchash requires to perform multiple search, insert, and delete operations in the tree, which tries to break the ASIC pipeline and makes the code execution path to be data-dependent and unpredictable besides random memory-access patterns. Thus, the mining efficiency is closely related to the CPU, which ensures the security of Boston consensus and encourges the mining decentralization. Please refer to Dr. Qi’s paper for more details: https://medium.com/quarkchain-official/order-statistics-based-hash-algorithm-e40f108563c4 2.3 Testnet 2.0 mining configuration Numbers of Shards: 8 Cluster: According to the real-time online mining node The corresponding mining algorithm is Read more about Ethash with Guardian: https://github.com/QuarkChain/pyquarkchain/wiki/Ethash-with-Guardian) We will provide cluster software and the demo implementation of CPU mining to the public. Miners are able to arbitrarily select one shard or multiple shards to mine according to the mining difficulty and rewards of different shards. GPU / ASIC mining is allowed if the public manages to get it working with the current testnet. With the upgrade of our testnet, we will further provide the corresponding GPU / ASIC software. QuarkChain’s two-layered blockchain structure, new P2P mode, and Boson consensus algorithm are expected tobe fully tested and verified in the QuarkChain testnet 2.0. 3 Mining Guidance In order to encourage all community members to participate in QuarkChain Testnet 2.0 mining event, we have prepared three mining guidances for community members of different backgrounds. Today we are releasing the Docker Mining Tutorial first. This tutorial provides a command line configuration guide for developers and a docker image for multiple platforms, including a concise introduction of nodes and mining settings. Follow the instructions here: Quick Start with QuarkChain Mining. Next we will continue to release: A tutorial for community members who don’t have programming background. In this tutorial, we will teach how to create private QuarkChain nodes using AWS, and how to mine QKC step by step. This tutorial is expected to be released in the next few days. Programs and APIs integrated with GPU / ASIC mining. This is expected to allow existing miners to switch to QKC mining more seamlessly. Frequently Asked Questions: 1. Can I use my laptop or personal computer to mine? Yes, we will provide cluster software and the demo implementation of CPU mining to the public. Miners will be able to arbitrarily select one shard or multiple shards to mine according to the work difficulty and rewards of different shards. 2. What is the minimum requirements for my laptop or personal computer to mine? Please prepare a Linux or MacOs machine with public IP address or port forwarding set up. 3. Can I mine with my GPU or an ASIC machine? For now, we will only be providing the demo implementation of CPU mining as our first step. Interested miners/developers can rewrite the corresponding GPU / ASIC mining program, according to the JSON RPC API we provided. With the upgrade of our testnet, we expect to provide the corresponding GPU / ASIC interface at a later date. 4. What is the difference among the different mining algorithms? Which one should I choose? Double SHA256 is a computational intensive algorithm, but Ethash and Qkchash are memory intensive algorithms, which have certain requirements on the computer’s memory. Since currently we only support CPU mining, the mining efficiency entirely depends on the cores and speed of CPU. 5. For testnet mining, what else should I know? First, the mining process will occupy a computer’s memory. Thus, it is recommended to use an idle computer for mining. In Testnet 2.0 settings, the target block time of root chain is 60 seconds, and the target block time of shard chain is 10 seconds. The mining is a completely random process, which will take some time and consume a certain amount of electricity. 6. What are the risks of testnet mining? Currently our testnet is still under the development stage and may not be 100% stable. Thus, there would be some risks for QuarkChain main chain forks in testnet, software upgrades and system reboots. These may cause your tQKC or block record to be lost despite our best efforts to ensure the stability and security of the testnet. For more technical questions, welcome to join our developer community on Discard: https://discord.me/quarkchain. 4 Reward Mechanism Testnet 2.0 and all rewards described herein, including mining, are not being offered and will not be available to any citizens or residents of the United States and certain other jurisdictions. All rewards will only be payable following the mainnet launch of QuarkChain. In order to claim or receive any of the following rewards after mainnet launch, you will be required to provide certain identifying documentation and information about yourself. Failure to provide such information or demonstrate compliance with the restrictions herein may result in forfeiture of all rewards, prohibition from participating in future QuarkChain programs, and other sanctions. NO U.S. PERSONS MAY PARTICIPATE IN TESTNET 2.0 AND QUARKCHAIN WILL STRICTLY ENFORCE THIS VIA OUR KYC PROCEDURES. IF YOU ARE A CITIZEN OR RESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, DO NOT PARTICIPATE IN TESTNET 2.0. YOU WILL NOT RECEIVE ANY REWARDS FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION. 4.1 Mining Rewards
Prize Pool A total of 5 million QKC prize pool have been reserved to motivate all miners to participate in the testnet 2.0 mining event. According to the different mining algorithms, the prize pool is allocated as follows:
Total Prize Pool: 5,000,000 QKC Prize Pool for Ethash Algorithm: 2,000,000 QKC Prize Pool for Double SHA256 Algorithm: 1,000,000 QKC Prize Pool for Qkchash Algorithm: 2,000,000 QKC The number of QKC each miner is eligible to receive upon mainnet launch will be calculated on a pro rata basis for each mining algorithm set forth above, based on the ratio of sharded block mined by each miner to the total number of sharded block mined by all miners employing such mining algorithm in Testnet 2.0.
Early-bird Rewards To encourage more people to participate early, we will provide early bird rewards. Miners who participate in the first month (December 2018, PST) will enjoy double points. This additional point reward will be ended on December 31, 2018, 11:59pm (PST).
4.2 Bonus for Bug Submission: If you find any bugs for QuarkChain testnet, please feel free to create an issue on our Github page: https://github.com/QuarkChain/pyquarkchain/issues, or send us an email to [email protected]. We may provide related rewards based on the importance and difficulty of the bugs. 4.3 Reward Rules: QuarkChain reserves the right to review the qualifications of the participants in this event. If any cheating behaviors were to be found, the participant will be immediately disqualified from any rewards. QuarkChain further reserves the right to update the rules of the event, to stop the event/network, or to restart the event/network in its sole discretion, including the right to interpret any rules, terms or conditions. For the latest information, please visit our official website or follow us on Telegram/Twitter. About QuarkChain QuarkChain is a flexible, scalable, and user-oriented blockchain infrastructure by applying blockchain sharding technology. It is one of the first public chains that successfully implemented state sharding technology for blockchain in the world. QuarkChain aims to deliver 100,000+ on-chain TPS. Currently, 14,000+ peak TPS has already been achieved by an early stage testnet. QuarkChain already has over 50 partners in its ecosystem. With flexibility, scalability, and usability, QuarkChain is enabling EVERYONE to enjoy blockchain technology at ANYTIME and ANYWHERE. Testnet 2.0 and all rewards described herein are not being and will not be offered in the United States or to any U.S. persons (as defined in Regulation S promulgated under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended) or any citizens or residents of countries subject to sanctions including the Balkans, Belarus, Burma, Cote D’Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iran, Iraq, Liberia, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, Zimbabwe, Central African Republic, Crimea, Lebanon, Libya, Somalia, South Suda, Venezuela and Yemen. QuarkChain reserves the right to terminate, suspend or prohibit participation of any user in Testnet 2.0 at any time. In order to claim or receive any rewards, including mining rewards, you will be required to provide certain identifying documentation and information. Failure to provide such information or demonstrate compliance with the restrictions herein may result in termination of your participation, forfeiture of all rewards, prohibition from participating in future QuarkChain programs, and other actions. This announcement is provided for informational purposes only and does not guarantee anyone a right to participate in or receive any rewards in connection with Testnet 2.0. Note: The use of Testnet 2.0 is subject to our terms and conditions available at: https://quarkchain.io/testnet-2-0-terms-and-conditions/ more about qurakchain: Website: https://quarkchain.io/cn/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/quarkchainofficial/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/Quark_Chain Telegram: https://t.me/quarkchainio
So my college have that IBM cluster, could it be useful to mine?
My college have an IBM cluster for the students to make some tests and I'm thinking about using it to mine. I just have to say it's about my research, but i need to know how to use it to mine, can someone help me out? (I'm new in this bitcoin issue, I've read the FAQ but I need more answers).
Here's what Satoshi wrote to the man responsible for Pizza Day, Laszlo Hanecz -- a r/bitcoin exclusive from "Digital Gold"
In the course of reporting for my book Digital Gold I learned a lot more about the story of Laszlo Hanecz, the man who spent 10,000 Bitcoins for pizza back in 2010. How did Laszlo have all those Bitcoins? It is not widely known, but in April 2010, Laszlo was essentially the first person to experiment with using the GPU card in his computer to more efficiently mine Bitcoins. Before that, most Bitcoin users had been employing their much less efficient CPU to do the computations. Laszlo’s CPU had been winning, at most, one block of 50 Bitcoins each day, of the approximately 140 blocks that were released daily. Once Laszlo got his GPU card hooked in he began winning one or two blocks an hour, and occasionally more. When Laszlo first emailed Satoshi and told him about his plans to mine with his GPU, Satoshi had mixed feelings. Here is the email Satoshi wrote to Laszlo. A big attraction to new users is that anyone with a computer can generate some free coins. When there are 5000 users, that incentive may fade, but for now it's still true. GPUs would prematurely limit the incentive to only those with high end GPU hardware. It's inevitable that GPU compute clusters will eventually hog all the generated coins, but I don't want to hasten that day. If the difficulty gets really high, that increases the value of each coin in a way since the supply becomes more limited. The supply is the same: 50 coins every 10 minutes. But GPUs are much less evenly distributed, so the generated coins only go towards rewarding 20% of the people for joining the network instead of 100%. I don't mean to sound like a socialist, I don't care if wealth is concentrated, but for now, we get more growth by giving that money to 100% of the people than giving it to 20%. Also, the longer we can delay the GPU arms race, the more mature the OpenCL libraries get, and the more people will have OpenCL compatible video cards. If we see from the difficulty factor that someone is using too much GPU, we can certainly pick this OpenCL stuff up again then. Maybe my effort to maintain GPU innocence is running out of time. It's worked out so far. Thanks to Laszlo for sharing this piece of Bitcoin history. If you'd like to learn more about Laszlo, Satoshi and the rest of Bitcoin's history, please buy a copy of Digital Gold on Amazon, or on Overstock if you want to pay with Bitcoins.
Have you read the sidebar and rules? (Please do) Yes. What is your intended use for this build? The more details the better. Primary: Scientific Workstation Software includes - -> computationally expensive MATLAB - CUDA-enabled GPU computing for MATLAB -> computationally expensive quantum chemistry/DFT software - Examples of software - I want to be able to do GPU-assisted simulations as well - VASP - has GPU support -> computationally expensive FDTD software - Lumerical FDTD Solver - commercial software (I have a license) that apparently does not support GPU support; seems the main bottleneck is memory bandwidth and not processing power gsvit - open source FDTD with GPU support Secondary: Gaming, Cryptocurrency (Etherium, Bitcoin mining) I figure the workstation specifications will more than cover the computer's ability to do these, but I wanted to mention these all for completeness sake. If gaming, what kind of performance are you looking for? (Screen resolution, framerate, game settings) 1080p 60fps on high/ultra is good, but if the performance is possible wouldn't mind getting into 4k down the road. I mainly play Blizzard games and Minecraft right now, but may get into Destiny 2. What is your budget (ballpark is okay)? $1500-$2000, but variable. In what country are you purchasing your parts? United States Post a draft of your potential build here (specific parts please). Consider formatting your parts list. Don't ask to be spoonfed a build (read the rules!). PCPartPicker part list / Price breakdown by merchant
Provide any additional details you wish below. As I mentioned, the primary purpose of this computer will be as a scientific workstation. I don't intend for it to be servecluster quality, but rather a strong desktop computer (duel Windows/Linux boot) that can run some relatively small, computationally expensive simulations and software in a reasonable amount of time, before larger projects/assignments are created for running on a computing cluster. My main concerns are reducing bottleneck - I want to be able to run both CPU and GPU-intensive software in a balanced way, meaning I'm not skimping on the GPU for a better CPU and vice versa. I realize it could be difficult to compare Some specific questions I have: 1) According to Intel's site, the max RAM speed supported by the i7-7700k is DDR4-2400. How does one use RAM with a higher speed? Do you need a Xeon processor? Also, I'm looking at 32 GB RAM. 2) For my purpose, should I definitely get a Z270? I read somewhere that it has a better memory controller than the Z170, but not sure about this. 3) How does the 1080 compare to 2x 1070? Or a 1080 Ti? For CUDA and for cryptocurrencies? I don't know too much about these from a computer hardware perspective, but am interested in learning more. Thank you!
Has anyone ever used their programming skills to earn them money on the stock market in the free time?
Title pretty much summarizes what I want to ask. I am personally not in a situation where I can actively trade stocks. I was going to buy a desktop computer soon with a powerful GPU and all. So it got me thinking if someone spent like 10k or something and created a computer cluster at home and did any kind of simulations/predictions about market movement or anything like that. PS: no bitcoin mining stories. From what I've heard that is no longer "profitable"
One of the released evidence exhibits (torrent, 538MB) is GX 296.pdf (mirror), which is a PGP private key, specifically: SilkRoad.asc, "dated modified 11/22/2011 8:21:46 AM". This is the ASCII-armored private key of the main DPR public key, the one he signed forum posts with and messaged with people. I was surprised to see it screenshotted like that, and I thought it would be hilarious if I could take the private key and announce that I was actually the real DPR by signing it with his key (since I've occasionally been accused of it). But it's a screenshot and not something one can copy-paste, which makes things difficult since every letter has to be perfect for the key to be valid. So I took an evening to carefully transcribe it; it took multiple passes to figure out each and every transcription error (mostly 1/l, O/0, which look nearly identical in the font*), but I finally did it:
This imports into my GPG without any CRC problems and with correct metadata, so it should be right. But it turns out to be passphrase-protected! Dammit! My first try to decrypt it was to take the server exhibit, write down every password given in it, and try those:
None of these seemed to work for me. (imposter also tried the Elcom dictionary +0-9, 6-9 characters, alphabet, lowercase.) So then I turned to a password cracker, specifically John the Ripper (WP), whose bleeding-jumbo edition I compiled with OpenCL (so it could use my wimpy GPU, which for Bitcoin mining could do something like 50mh/s); John doesn't handle GPG natively, but it apparently does ship with a tool gpg2john to convert the passphrase hash to something it can work with, which yields:
I think one could also try pgpry but I didn't since I got john up and running before I saw it. Since the server passwords failed, and I saw a variety of characters and capitalizations, I had john do bruteforce:
john --format=gpg-opencl --incremental=ASCII sr-hash
I ran it for about a week, and finally lost my patience. I was hoping it'd be like one of the short passphrases in the server password list, which would have been bruteforced by now. I wound up ending john at
(john.log, john.rec) Oh well. It was worth a shot. Not everything pans out. But maybe someone with a GPU cluster or better at password cracking wants to give it a shot and reveal the passphrase? I can't pretend to be DPR after posting this, but it would still be interesting to go back and decrypt some of the messages to DPR on the SR1 forums. (Why should LE have all the snooping fun?) * these characters also mean OCR is not very useful for transcribing crypto keys; every character has to be perfect, so since you're going to be going character-by-character anyway... One thought I had was that the right key was only maybe 5-10 edits away from the OCR version or my first hand-draft, so it should be feasible to brute-force all versions within a certain edit distance to see if their CRC is right or brute-force specific transpositions. But I don't transcribe keys nearly often enough to bother writing such a tool.
Current Equipment: 1 x Old laptop: 750 GB HD 8 GB RAM i-5 Quad-core GeForce GT 630m GPU 1 x Raspberry Pi ~7 x super old computers with floppy disk drives and that sort of stuff (probably useless) Desired Equipment Absolutely no idea. I really need to research this. I browser /homelab and I'm like 'what's the thingy with tonnes of ports for if they only need 4 of them', so I'm super new at this area. Desired Features (To work towards) Kubernetes Cluster I'm hoping to run a (custom?) Kubernetes cluster at home - for practice and fun. I work as a software engineer and our stuff is all on a Kubernetes cluster, but I mostly do programming, with only small bits of my own DevOps here and there, so I'm pretty rubbish at Kubernetes at the minute. This project should bring me up to speed. AI Experiments I'm super into artificial intelligence / machine learning, and I've dabbled in all sorts of areas (data mining with the Weka API - KNN / J48 (C4.5) | Home grown (variational) autoencoders with Tensorflow and Caffe | Image producing GANs etc.) and I'd like to do more, only with several projects I've had to leave it running for days in a row, or spend money on an AWS instance to get it running there. So ideally I'll use a super basic old laptop / raspberry pi combination to get my homelab started, then branch out and migrate to better hardware once I figure out what to get, and then when I have some good specs behind me I'll be able to run some machine learning projects on it all. Even with limited processing power, training a classifier could be left to do its thing for a week rather than running on my main laptop all night long. Bitcoin Mining? I'm not too fussed about this one, but I was thinking - if I'm going to sort out a homelab, and it'll be doing its thing, I probably won't have all of its capacity maxed out at any one time, so would it be worthwhile finding a way of making it do bitcoin mining with 'spare resources'? No idea how easy / feasible this is, just a thought. Super Awesome Dashboard Stuff I like a good dashboard. Current Status I wiped my old laptop, put Ubunutu server edition on it, got half way through setting it up so I can SSH into it from my main laptop, and then stopped to figure out what a Hypervisor was and whether I need to re-think everything based on that. My Questions
Does anyone here have experience running Kubernetes on a homelab? If so what challenges / useful resources / any info at all can you share?
Do my projects sound feasible / suitable for a homelab?
Any suggestions or improvements on my ideas so far?
Thanks for reading my wall of text! Here's a picture of my dog.
QuarkChain QuarkChain aims to build a user-friendly, decentralized and reliable blockchain that can ultimately handle millions of transactions per second. Scalability has been integrated into the design of QuarkChain from the get-go and with this in mind they’ve set out to build a platform capable of supporting industries ranging from FinTech to gaming and social media. The Problem There’s a saying in life that goes like this… When you’re young you have time and energy, but no money. When you’re an adult, you have money and energy, but no time. When you’re retired, you have time and money, but no energy. What a dilemma! Or should we say… trilemma? Hmm, well is it really not possible to achieve all three? Of course it is! A similar trilemma presents itself in blockchain however there has been no viable solution uncovered to date and this is exactly what QuarkChain along with many others in this space are attempting to solve. The blockchain trilemma looks like this: A permissioned (centralized) blockchain can provide scalability and security however loses all trace of decentralization. Permissioned blockchains are similar to centralized systems in the old world such as banks, Visa, as well as PayPal. Opting for a permissionless (decentralized) blockchain such as Bitcoin or Ethereum provides security and a dispersed network however scalability is sacrificed, this was evident with the CryptoKitties dApp and excessive transaction fees when the demand on the Bitcoin network was high. The real challenge therefore is figuring out how a blockchain can ACHIEVE ALL THREE: Decentralization Scalability Security Whomever is able to solve this trilemma will likely score themselves “a one-way ticket to the moon”! But before we leap towards thinking about getting onto the moon, let’s take a step back and consider exactly why it is that decentralization, security, and scalability are essential components for a blockchain… BLOCKCHAIN SECURITY The two primary components that ensure the security of a blockchain are: Making sure only valid transactions are made; and That the network is safe and resistant to malicious attacks and users. Ensuring that only valid transactions are made allows users of cryptocurrency to maintain a strong level of trust and confidence in the value of the crypto. If a user can easily send tokens they don’t own and make new ones out of thin air, this greatly undermines the value of the cryptocurrency. This would be similar to printing money out of thin air, which has been a regular practice for many reserve banks around the world for several years. The more money is introduced into any economy this will drive inflation up causing the currency being printed to drop in value.. When this is taken to extremes hyperinflation can occur as was the case in Zimbabwe and this can cause all sorts of mayhem, strife, and havoc. DECENTRALIZATION As the term implies decentralization is the opposite of centralization and in the case of crypto an extreme level of centralization would be having a sole miner for a blockchain. Anyone transacting on this blockchain would need to have a great deal of faith and trust that this sole miner won’t do anything dodgy as make up fake transactions. Even if people trusted this miner, the network would still be at great risk as now anyone interested in taking down the blockchain has a single target to attack. They can launch a denial of service attack on the miner taking the whole network down or look to bribe, blackmail, or manipulate the miner into doing their bidding. SCALABILITY As written above, decentralization and security are essential for the ecosystem, they provide a reliable and costly efficient space to continue evolving into future tech. On the other hand, as shown on the next diagram, as security and decentralization grows, an enormous amount of data , requirements for storage and bandwidth needs grow with it, which intrinsically implies a diminution in the system´s scalability. Solution As illustrated in the diagram below, there are three propositions to solving the problem of scalability: Multi-blockchains → They may suffer from vulnerability issues, double-spending attacks, reverse transactions or strategic mining attacks. Lightning network→ BTC´s option to this problem seems to be inefficient. User’s transaction targets are random and happen sporadically. Sharding→ Omniledger´s solution to the problem, with the intricate consensus protocol. It may be limited by cross-shards transactions and single shard take overs. But partial solutions do not provide full efficiency especially in a time of exponential evolution. QuarkChain aims to fulfill the ultimate goal of any blockchain: Extending scalability far beyond current tech limits, while maintaining the balance for both security and decentralization. QuarkChain’s bottom up approach to scalability begins by considering the two primary functions a blockchain serves as a public ledger which is: Tracking the “state” of a ledger and all of the transactions that are made; and Ensuring only valid transactions are confirmed and recorded onto the ledger. 1. The “State” of a Ledger If you’re not sure what a ledger is, you can think of it as the thing responsible for keeping track of and recording everything that occurs in your bank account. Your account has a running list of debits (when money goes out of your account — boo!) and credits (when money goes into your account — woo!) which are recorded whenever money is sent or received into your account. The “state” of the ledger then is simply a snapshot of what’s in your bank account at any point in time, which is otherwise known as your bank balance! When a friend sends $50 into your account that has $100 in it, the new “state” of your account will then be $150. An ancient Papyrus ledger
Confirmation of Transactions
If a transaction is made it doesn’t necessarily mean the transaction will go through and this is what confirming a transaction is all about. Sending $100 to a friend with $50 in your account will see your transaction getting rejected! The transaction won’t be processed and confirmed as it is an invalid transaction due to insufficient funds in your account. QuarkChain’s 2 Layered Blockchain System QuarkChain separates out these two primary functions with the use of a 2 layered system that allows for greater scalability: The first layer consists of “elastic sharded” blockchains; and The second layer has a root blockchain. The first layer with “elastic sharded” blockchains can be broken down as follows: Elastic: the sharded (minor) blockchains on this layer are elastic because the amount can be increased or decreased as required. Sharded — each sharded minor-blockchain only processes a small subset of all the transactions that occur so they are considered “sharded” as they represent a small fragment of all the transactions occurring throughout the network. (This is what enables QuarkChain’s scalability.) Blockchains — the minor-blockchains keep track of the current state of the ledger by processing and recording relevant data such as user accounts and the transactions made between accounts The Second Layer and the Root Blockchain The second layer serves the function of confirming the transactions that take place throughout the network. This is done by sending the block headers of the minor blockchains that contain all the transactions to the root blockchain, the root blockchain then confirms these transactions by creating a new block with all of the block headers. QuarkChain’s 2nd layer system offers a higher amount of transactions per second whilst accounting for bottlenecks that occur from increased throughput such as computing power, data storage, and internet bandwidth. Structure of QuarkChain’s 2nd Layered Blockchain Are We Decentralized Yet? QuarkChain incorporates several features to ensure decentralization of the network: Collaborative mining driven by game-theoretic incentives to ensure when miners mine for their own selfish benefit that this behavior aligns with what is best for the overall system. Mining difficulty algorithms are designed so that hash power is evenly distributed among sharded minor-blockchains and the root blockchain. Each blockchain offers different rewards and difficulty levels so that weak miners can achieve similar levels of expected returns by mining solo when compared to joining a mining pool. This lessens the need for mining pools and results in less centralization. Main Features — Tech Overview Smart Contracts QuarkChain supports smart contracts with the use of Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), sharded blockchains therefore run their own smart contracts local to their blockchain via EVM. Sharded blockchains can be thought of as mini-Ethereum’s or clones of Ethereum running simultaneously and parallel to one another with unique individual wallets associated to them. So for sharded blockchain 1, you will also have wallet 1, and on sharded blockchain 2 there is wallet 2, and so forth… As you can imagine it would be a hassle to keep track of these wallets, especially if there are a hundred or even thousands of these sharded blockchains, which is why QuarkChain offers the following two features: Simple Account Management Smart Wallet In QuarkChain users are able to use a single “Primary Account” where the majority of the user’s funds will be parked for them to manage all other wallets. When a user wants to send funds to a different sharded blockchain the user simply sends it from their Primary Account. Primary account sending transactions to wallets located in other sharded blockchains The Primary Account is combined with a “Smart Wallet” to automatically handle “cross”-shard transactions, these “cross”-shared transactions can be made anytime and are confirmed within minutes. (A cross-shard transaction is a transaction that is made from one sharded blockchain to another sharded blockchain, e.g. sending funds from Wallet 1 to Wallet 2 would constitute a cross-shard transaction, whereas a transaction made from one wallet to another wallet within the same shard, e.g. Shard 1, is considered an “in-shard” transaction.) Roadmap Q1 2018 — White paper and developing verification code 0.1 proof of concept Q2 2018 — Release verification code 0.2 and implement Testnet 0.1 with Wallet 0.1. Testnet 0.1 supports basic transactions including both in-shard and cross-shard transactions Q3 2018 — Release Testnet 0.2 and Wallet 0.2. Testnet 0.2 supports further features such as smart contracts, reshard, etc. Q4 2018 — Release of QuarkChain Core 1.0, Mainnet 1.0, together with Smart Wallet 1.0 Core 1.0 will provide basic functionality and basic optimization (e.g. GPU support) for QuarkChain. Q2 2019 — Release of QuarkChain Core 2.0, Mainnet 2.0, together with Smart Wallet 2.0 Code 2.0 further optimizez Core 1.0 and enables clustering feature for mini-nodes to form a cluster and run as a full node. Token Economics Token Name : QKC Hard Cap : 20 Million USD The QuarkChain token (QKC) will be an ERC-20 token until Mainnet 1.0 launches Q4 2018, the QKC (ERC-20) will then be converted to QuarkChain’s mainnet tokens. Crowdsale intended for end of May or start of June 2 year vesting period for the team with an extended vesting period for QuarkChain’s Foundation QKC will be used to pay for transaction fees and to reward community contributors that help improve QuarkChain’s system A significant amount of QKC will be dedicated to incentivizing developers to build dApps on QuarkChain’s platform Development Team Qi Zhou — Founder Qi Zhou achieved 10M tps as a member of the real time infrastructure team at Facebook Expert in scalability and was a key developer in achieving 10m IOPS with clustering for EMC 5+ years as a software engineer. Short stints with key roles at Facebook (1 year), Dell EMC (2.5 years), Google (9 months) and Ratrix Technologies (10 months). PHD from Georgia institute of Technology Zhaoguang Wang — Software Engineer Zhaouang has 6+ years experience as a system backend engineer working on large complex distributed systems Key roles at Facebook (1 year), Instagram (4 months), Google (5 years) PHD and Masters degree in Computer Science and Engineering, University of Michigan Xiaoli Ma — Research Scientist Professor at Georgia Institute of Technology (Combined 7 years, 10 months) Previously CTO and Co Founder of Ratrix Technologies (6 years, 5 months) Yaodong Yang — Research Scientist Vice Chairman in Education at Xi’an Jiaotong University, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology Co-founder of Demo++ (Tech Incubator) Yaodong has authorized 50+ papers in peer reviewed journals and has over 600 citations in his name. Wencen Wu — Research Scientist Wencen has been a Assistant Professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (4 years and 6 months). Has a MSC and PHD in Electrical and Computer Engineering Operations Team Anturine Xiang — Marketing and Community Anturine has 6+ years experience within finance and technology at Wall Street and Silicon Valley Key Roles as Lead Platform Analytics at Wish, Business Development and Marketing at Beepi, Consumer Marketing and Analytics at LinkedIn Partners and Investors Arun G. Phadke Arun is a University Distinguished Professor emeritus in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Virginia Tech Fellow of National Academy of Engineering, USA Bill Moore Managing Director of Walden International (Global venture capital firm) Previously Chief Engineer Sun Microsystems who co-led the ZFS team, also Former President of DSSD/EMC (Dell) Mike Miller Mike is a PhD Physicist with 100+ publications Founder of Cloundant which was acquired by IBM in 2014 Kevin Hsu Kevin is a serial investor in blockchain companies Leo Wang Leo is a recognised cryptocurrency fund manager who invested in blockchain projects. He is an Angel investor in NEO with over 17 years of field experience in mobile internet in China Zhiyun Qian Cybersecurity expert who discovered serious vulnerabilities in Linux, Android and TCP/IP Assistant Professor at University of California Riverside
Hey all, I know bitcoin mining has been addressed probably thousands of times but I cannot find the answer to my question. I know it may not be profitable when you have to invest tons of money and time into it but I have a completely free cluster of 30 to 40 computers I could upgrade. I am not sure of the specs but I could upgrade the GPU and other components. Now not only that but the electricity would be basically free as this is run on a campus at a university. I guess my real question is would it be profitable to turn these computers that are currently not in use into even a small bitcoin mining operation? Also how noticeable would it be to an onlooker, the cluster is always running anyways and no one really tends to it. I appreciate any responses and I can provide more detail if needed.
Build a GPU Mining Rig: Part 1 · Part 2 · Part 3 When we built our first mining rigs we bounced around from site-to-site trying to get everything right. Between the hardware, the software and selecting a mining pool it took a bit more time than we thought it should. So, we’ve created this step-by-step guide with the hopes of simplifying your 6 GPU mining rig build, whether it’s your ... However today, CPUs and even more powerful GPU’s are worthless for mining on Bitcoin’s network- which leaves all of the mining to one powerful mining company in China. However, just because you do not own an expensive ASIC miner doesn’t mean you can’t “mine” with any average computer to ultimately obtain Bitcoin (using a regular CPU, GPU, and even a Hard-Drive). First Option: Mine ... CPU Mining with a large EC2 cluster - worth the effort? [duplicate] Ask Question Asked 8 years, 9 months ago. Active 4 years, 7 months ago. Viewed 15k times 11. 3. This question already has answers here: In the ASIC-age, is it worth starting mining Bitcoin at home? (2 answers) Closed 4 years ago. I'm relatively new to Bitcoin, and am playing around with pool mining for fun. I have access to a ... Top 10 Best Trusted and Safe Bitcoin Cloud Mining Sites of 2020 Bitcoin Pool . Bitcoin Pool (mining.bitcoin.com) is provided directly by Bitcoin.com and aims to provide the most competitive clouding mining service. Bitcoin advertise that they deliver the highest Pay Per Share (PPS) pool globally with a 98% block reward. Set up is easy and you can start mining immediately, either on Bitcoin ... Note hashrate info is not available in geth when GPU mining. Check your hashrate with ethminer, miner.hashrate will always report 0.. CPU Mining with Geth. When you start up your ethereum node with geth it is not mining by default. To start it in mining mode, you use the --mine command-line flag. The --minerthreads parameter can be used to set the number parallel mining threads (defaulting to ...
Raspberry Pi 4 Bitcoin Mining For 24 Hours! - YouTube
Raspberry Pi 3 Super Computing Cluster Part 1 - Hardware List and Assembly - Duration: 24:04. ... How to make a Raspberry Pi Bitcoin Mining Rig - Duration: 9:43. Tinkernut Labs 306,706 views. 9:43 ... A full and detailed video of my 13 GPU mining rig build. In this video I cover the entire process of building and setting up and mega cryptocoin miner using ... How to make a Raspberry Pi Bitcoin Mining Rig. How to make a Raspberry Pi Bitcoin Mining Rig. Skip navigation Sign in. Search . Loading... We’ll stop supporting this browser soon. For the best ... SUBSCRIBE FOR MORE HOW MUCH - http://shorturl.at/arBHL The case you see in this video on Amazon - https://amzn.to/2JsypGm You can buy all the computer parts ... Buy Raspberry Pi 4 Model B 4GB: https://amzn.to/2tlBfGW How to Setup a Raspberry Pi 4 Bitcoin Mining Rig w/ Bitmain AntMiner U3: https://youtu.be/dPWTSytzN7g...